See also the man pages motion(9).

1. Motion

These pins and parameters are created by the realtime motmod module. This module provides a HAL interface for LinuxCNC’s motion planner. Basically motmod takes in a list of waypoints and generates a nice blended and constraint-limited stream of joint positions to be fed to the motor drives.

Optionally the number of Digital I/O is set with num_dio. The number of Analog I/O is set with num_aio. The default is 4 each.

Pin names starting with axis are actually joint values, but the pins and parameters are still called axis.N. They are read and updated by the motion-controller function.

Motion is loaded with the motmod command. A kins should be loaded before motion.

loadrt motmod [base_period_nsec=period] [servo_period_nsec=period]
[traj_period_nsec=period] [num_joints=[0-9] ([num_dio=1-64] num_aio=1-16])]
  • base_period_nsec = 50000 - the Base task period in nanoseconds. This is the fastest thread in the machine.

Note
On servo-based systems, there is generally no reason for base_period_nsec to be smaller than servo_period_nsec. On machines with software step generation, the base_period_nsec determines the maximum number of steps per second. In the absence of long step length and step space requirements, the absolute maximum step rate is one step per base_period_nsec. Thus, the base_period_nsec shown above gives an absolute maximum step rate of 20,000 steps per second. 50,000 ns (50 us) is a fairly conservative value. The smallest usable value is related to the Latency Test result, the necessary step length, and the processor speed. Choosing a base_period_nsec that is too low can lead to the "Unexpected real time delay" message, lockups, or spontaneous reboots.
  • servo_period_nsec = 1000000 - This is the Servo task period in nanoseconds. This value will be rounded to an integer multiple of base_period_nsec. This period is used even on systems based on stepper motors.

    This is the rate at which new motor positions are computed, following error is checked, PID output values are updated, and so on. Most systems will not need to change this value. It is the update rate of the low level motion planner.

  • traj_period_nsec = 100000 - This is the Trajectory Planner task period in nanoseconds. This value will be rounded to an integer multiple of servo_period_nsec. Except for machines with unusual kinematics (e.g., hexapods) there is no reason to make this value larger than servo_period_nsec.

1.1. Options

If the number of digital I/O needed is more than the default of 4 you can add up to 64 digital I/O by using the num_dio option when loading motmod.

If the number of analog I/O needed is more than the default of 4 you can add up to 16 analog I/O by using the num_aio option when loading motmod.

1.2. Pins

These pins, parameters, and functions are created by the realtime motmod module.

  • motion.adaptive-feed - (float, in) When adaptive feed is enabled with M52 P1 , the commanded velocity is multiplied by this value. This effect is multiplicative with the NML-level feed override value and motion.feed-hold.

  • motion.analog-in-00 - (float, in) These pins (00, 01, 02, 03 or more if configured) are controlled by M66.

  • motion.analog-out-00 - (float, out) These pins (00, 01, 02, 03 or more if configured) are controlled by M67 or M68.

  • motion.coord-error - (bit, out) TRUE when motion has encountered an error, such as exceeding a soft limit

  • motion.coord-mode - (bit, out) TRUE when motion is in coordinated mode, as opposed to teleop mode

  • motion.current-vel - (float, out) The current tool velocity in user units per second.

  • motion.digital-in-00 - (bit, in) These pins (00, 01, 02, 03 or more if configured) are controlled by M62-65.

  • motion.digital-out-00 - (bit, out) These pins (00, 01, 02, 03 or more if configured) are controlled by the M62-65.

  • motion.distance-to-go - (float,out) The distance remaining in the current move.

  • motion.enable - (bit, in) If this bit is driven FALSE, motion stops, the machine is placed in the machine off state, and a message is displayed for the operator. For normal motion, drive this bit TRUE.

  • motion.feed-hold - (bit, in) When Feed Stop Control is enabled with M53 P1, and this bit is TRUE, the feed rate is set to 0.

  • motion.feed-inhibit - (bit, in) When this bit is TRUE, the feed rate is set to 0. This will be delayed during spindle synch moves till the end of the move.

  • motion.in-position - (bit, out) TRUE if the machine is in position.

  • motion.motion-enabled - (bit, out) TRUE when in machine on state.

  • motion.on-soft-limit - (bit, out) TRUE when the machine is on a soft limit.

  • motion.probe-input - (bit, in) G38.x uses the value on this pin to determine when the probe has made contact. TRUE for probe contact closed (touching), FALSE for probe contact open.

  • motion.program-line - (s32, out) The current program line while executing. Zero if not running or between lines while single stepping.

  • motion.requested-vel - (float, out) The current requested velocity in user units per second from the F=n setting in the G Code file. No feed overrides or any other adjustments are applied to this pin.

  • motion.spindle-at-speed - (bit, in) Motion will pause until this pin is TRUE, under the following conditions: before the first feed move after each spindle start or speed change; before the start of every chain of spindle-synchronized moves; and if in CSS mode, at every rapid to feed transition. This input can be used to ensure that the spindle is up to speed before starting a cut, or that a lathe spindle in CSS mode has slowed down after a large to small facing pass before starting the next pass at the large diameter. Many VFDs have an at speed output. Otherwise, it is easy to generate this signal with the HAL near component, by comparing requested and actual spindle speeds.

  • motion.spindle-brake - (bit, out) TRUE when the spindle brake should be applied.

  • motion.spindle-forward - (bit, out) TRUE when the spindle should rotate forward.

  • motion.spindle-index-enable - (bit, I/O) For correct operation of spindle synchronized moves, this pin must be hooked to the index-enable pin of the spindle encoder.

  • motion.spindle-inhibit - (bit, in) When this bit is TRUE, the spindle speed is set to 0.

  • motion.spindle-on - (bit, out) TRUE when spindle should rotate.

  • motion.spindle-reverse - (bit, out) TRUE when the spindle should rotate backward

  • motion.spindle-revs - (float, in) For correct operation of spindle synchronized moves, this signal must be hooked to the position pin of the spindle encoder. The spindle encoder position should be scaled such that spindle-revs increases by 1.0 for each rotation of the spindle in the clockwise (M3) direction.

  • motion.spindle-speed-in - (float, in) Feedback of actual spindle speed in rotations per second. This is used by feed-per-revolution motion (G95). If your spindle encoder driver does not have a velocity output, you can generate a suitable one by sending the spindle position through a ddt component. If you do not have a spindle encoder, you can loop back motion.spindle-speed-out-rps.

  • motion.spindle-speed-out - (float, out) Commanded spindle speed in rotations per minute. Positive for spindle forward (M3), negative for spindle reverse (M4).

  • motion.spindle-speed-out-abs - (float, out) Commanded spindle speed in rotations per minute. This will always be a positive number.

  • motion.spindle-speed-out-rps - (float, out) Commanded spindle speed in rotations per second. Positive for spindle forward (M3), negative for spindle reverse (M4).

  • motion.spindle-speed-out-rps-abs - (float, out) Commanded spindle speed in rotations per second. This will always be a positive number.

  • motion.teleop-mode - (bit, out) TRUE when motion is in teleop mode, as opposed to coordinated mode

  • motion.tooloffset.x … motion.tooloffset.w - (float, out, one per axis) shows the tool offset in effect; it could come from the tool table (G43 active), or it could come from the gcode (G43.1 active)

  • motion.spindle-orient-angle - (float,out) Desired spindle orientation for M19. Value of the M19 R word parameter plus the value of the [RS274NGC]ORIENT_OFFSET ini parameter.

  • motion.spindle-orient-mode - (s32,out) Desired spindle rotation mode M19. Default 0.

  • motion.spindle-orient - (out,bit) Indicates start of spindle orient cycle. Set by M19. Cleared by any of M3,M4,M5. If spindle-orient-fault is not zero during spindle-orient true, the M19 command fails with an error message.

  • motion.spindle-is-oriented - (in, bit) Acknowledge pin for spindle-orient. Completes orient cycle. If spindle-orient was true when spindle-is-oriented was asserted, the spindle-orient pin is cleared and the spindle-locked pin is asserted. Also, the spindle-brake pin is asserted.

  • motion.spindle-orient-fault - (s32, in) Fault code input for orient cycle. Any value other than zero will cause the orient cycle to abort.

  • motion.spindle-lock - (bit, out) Spindle orient complete pin. Cleared by any of M3,M4,M5.

HAL pin usage for M19 orient spindle

Conceptually the spindle is in one of the following modes:

  • rotation mode (the default)

  • searching for desired orientation mode

  • orienation complete mode.

When an M19 is executed, the spindle changes to searching for desired orientation , and the spindle-orient HAL pin is asserted. The desired target position is specified by the spindle-orient-angle and spindle-orient-fwd pins and driven by the M19 R and P parameters.

The HAL support logic is expected to react to spindle-orient by moving the spindle to the desired position. When this is complete, the HAL logic is expected to acknowledge this by asserting the spindle-is-oriented pin.

Motion then acknowledges this by deasserting the spindle-orient pin and asserts the spindle-locked pin to indicate orientation complete mode. It also raises the spindle-brake pin. The spindle now is in orientation complete mode.

If, during spindle-orient being true, and spindle-is-oriented not yet asserted the spindle-orient-fault pin has a value other than zero, the M19 command is aborted, a message including the fault code is displayed, and the motion queue is flushed. The spindle reverts to rotation mode.

Also, any of the M3,M4 or M5 commands cancel either searching for desired orientation or orientation complete mode. This is indicated by deasserting both the spindle-orient and spindle-locked pins.

The spindle-orient-mode pin reflects the M19 P word and shall be interpreted as follows:

  • 0: rotate clockwise or counterclockwise for smallest angular movement

  • 1: always rotate clockwise

  • 2: always rotate counterclockwise

It can be used with the orient HAL component which provides a PID command value based on spindle encoder positon, spindle-orient-angle and spindle-orient-mode.

1.3. Parameters

Many of these parameters serve as debugging aids, and are subject to change or removal at any time.

  • motion-command-handler.time - (s32, RO)

  • motion-command-handler.tmax - (s32, RW)

  • motion-controller.time - (s32, RO)

  • motion-controller.tmax - (s32, RW)

  • motion.debug-bit-0 - (bit, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-bit-1 - (bit, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-float-0 - (float, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-float-1 - (float, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-float-2 - (float, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-float-3 - (float, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-s32-0 - (s32, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.debug-s32-1 - (s32, RO) This is used for debugging purposes.

  • motion.servo.last-period - (u32, RO) The number of CPU cycles between invocations of the servo thread. Typically, this number divided by the CPU speed gives the time in seconds, and can be used to determine whether the realtime motion controller is meeting its timing constraints

  • motion.servo.last-period-ns - (float, RO)

1.4. Functions

Generally, these functions are both added to the servo-thread in the order shown.

  • motion-command-handler - Processes motion commands coming from user space

  • motion-controller - Runs the LinuxCNC motion controller

2. Axis (Joints)

These pins and parameters are created by the realtime motmod module. These are actually joint values, but the pins and parameters are still called axis.N.
[In trivial kinematics machines, there is a one-to-one correspondence between joints and axes.]
They are read and updated by the motion-controller function.

2.1. Pins

  • axis.N.active - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.amp-enable-out - (bit, out) TRUE if the amplifier for this joint should be enabled

  • axis.N.amp-fault-in - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE if an external fault is detected with the amplifier for this joint

  • axis.N.backlash-corr - (float, out)

  • axis.N.backlash-filt - (float, out)

  • axis.N.backlash-vel - (float, out)

  • axis.N.coarse-pos-cmd - (float, out)

  • axis.N.error - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.f-error - (float, out)

  • axis.N.f-error-lim - (float, out)

  • axis.N.f-errored - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.faulted - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.free-pos-cmd - (float, out)

  • axis.N.free-tp-enable - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.free-vel-lim - (float, out)

  • axis.N.home-sw-in - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE if the home switch for this joint is closed.

  • axis.N.homed - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.homing - (bit, out) TRUE if the joint is currently homing

  • axis.N.in-position - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.index-enable - (bit, I/O)

  • axis.N.jog-counts - (s32, in) Connect to the counts pin of an external encoder to use a physical jog wheel.

  • axis.N.jog-enable - (bit, in) When TRUE (and in manual mode), any change in jog-counts will result in motion. When false, jog-counts is ignored.

  • axis.N.jog-scale - (float, in) Sets the distance moved for each count on jog-counts, in machine units.

  • axis.N.jog-vel-mode - (bit, in) When FALSE (the default), the jogwheel operates in position mode. The axis will move exactly jog-scale units for each count, regardless of how long that might take. When TRUE, the wheel operates in velocity mode - motion stops when the wheel stops, even if that means the commanded motion is not completed.

  • axis.N.joint-pos-cmd - (float, out) The joint (as opposed to motor) commanded position. There may be an offset between the joint and motor positions—for example, the homing process sets this offset.

  • axis.N.joint-pos-fb - (float, out) The joint (as opposed to motor) feedback position.

  • axis.N.joint-vel-cmd - (float, out)

  • axis.N.kb-jog-active - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.motor-pos-cmd - (float, out) The commanded position for this joint.

  • axis.N.motor-pos-fb - (float, in) The actual position for this joint.

  • axis.N.neg-hard-limit - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.pos-lim-sw-in - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE if the positive limit switch for this joint is closed.

  • axis.N.pos-hard-limit - (bit, out)

  • axis.N.neg-lim-sw-in - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE if the negative limit switch for this joint is closed.

  • axis.N.wheel-jog-active - (bit, out)

2.2. Parameters

  • axis.N.home-state - Reflects the step of homing currently taking place.

3. iocontrol

iocontrol − accepts NML I/O commands, interacts with HAL in userspace.

The signals are turned on and off in userspace - if you have strict timing requirements or simply need more i/o, consider using the realtime synchronized i/o provided by motion instead.

3.1. Pins

  • iocontrol.0.coolant-flood - (bit, out) TRUE when flood coolant is requested.

  • iocontrol.0.coolant-mist - (bit, out) TRUE when mist coolant is requested.

  • iocontrol.0.emc-enable-in - (bit, in) Should be driven FALSE when an external E-Stop condition exists.

  • iocontrol.0.lube - (bit, out) TRUE when lube is commanded.

  • iocontrol.0.lube_level - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE when lube level is high enough.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-change - (bit, out) TRUE when a tool change is requested.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-changed - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE when a tool change is completed.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-number - (s32, out) The current tool number.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-prep-number - (s32, out) The number of the next tool, from the RS274NGC T-word.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-prepare - (bit, out) TRUE when a tool prepare is requested.

  • iocontrol.0.tool-prepared - (bit, in) Should be driven TRUE when a tool prepare is completed.

  • iocontrol.0.user-enable-out - (bit, out) FALSE when an internal E-Stop condition exists.

  • iocontrol.0.user-request-enable - (bit, out) TRUE when the user has requested that E-Stop be cleared.

4. ini settings

A number of ini settings are made available as hal input pins.

4.1. Pins

  • ini.n.min_limit - (float, in) [AXIS_n]MIN_LIMIT

  • ini.n.max_limit - (float, in) [AXIS_n]MAX_LIMIT

  • ini.n.ferror - (float, in) [AXIS_n]FERROR

  • ini.n.min_ferror - (float, in) [AXIS_n]MIN_FERROR

  • ini.n.max_velocity - (float, in) [AXIS_n]MAX_VELOCITY

  • ini.n.max_acceleration - (float, in) [AXIS_n]MAX_ACCELERATION

  • ini.n.backlash - (float, in) [AXIS_n]BACKLASH

Note
The per-axis min_limit and max_limit pins are honored continuously after homing. The per-axis ferror and min_ferror pins are honored when the machine is on and not in position. The per-axis max_velocity and max_acceleration pins are sampled when the machine is on and the motion_state is free (homing or jogging) but are not sampled when in a program is running (auto mode) or in mdi mode. Consequently, changing the pin values when a program is running will not have effect until the program is stopped and the motion_state is again free.
  • ini.traj_arc_blend_enable - (bit, in) [TRAJ]ARC_BLEND_ENABLE

  • ini.traj_arc_blend_fallback_enable - (bit, in) [TRAJ]ARC_BLEND_FALLBACK_ENABLE

  • ini.traj_arc_blend_gap_cycles - (float, in) [TRAJ]ARC_BLEND_GAP_CYCLES

  • ini.traj_arc_blend_optimization_depth - (float, in) [TRAJ]ARC_BLEND_OPTIMIZATION_DEPTH

  • ini.traj_arc_blend_ramp_freq - (float, in) [TRAJ]ARC_BLEND_RAMP_FREQ

Note
The traj_arc_blend pins are sampled continuously but changing pin values while a program is running may not have immediate effect due to queueing of commands.
  • ini.traj_default_acceleration - (float, in) [TRAJ]DEFAULT_ACCELERATION

  • ini.traj_default_velocity - (float, in) [TRAJ]DEFAULT_VELOCITY

  • ini.traj_max_acceleration - (float, in) [TRAJ]MAX_ACCELERATION