This handbook is a work in progress. If you are able to help with writing, editing, or graphic preparation please contact any member of the writing team or join and send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Copyright (c) 2000-9 LinuxCNC.org
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and one Back-Cover Text: "This EMC Handbook is the product of several authors writing for linuxCNC.org. As you find it to be of value in your work, we invite you to contribute to its revision and growth." A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". If you do not find the license you may order a copy from Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330 Boston, MA 02111-1307
The minimum system to run EMC2 and Ubuntu may vary depending on the exact usage. Stepper systems in general require faster threads to generate step pulses than servo systems. Using the Live-CD you can test the software before committing a computer. Keep in mind that the Latency Test numbers are more important than the processor speed for software step generation. More information on the Latency Test is in Section ([.]).
Additional information is on the EMC Wiki site:
EMC2 and Ubuntu should run reasonably well on a computer with the following minimum hardware specification. These numbers are not the absolute minimum but will give reasonable performance for most stepper systems.
Laptops are not generally suited to real time software step generation. Again a Latency Test run for an extended time will give you the info you need to determine suitability.
If your installation pops up with 800 x 600 screen resolution then most likely Ubuntu does not recognize your video card or monitor. Onboard video many times causes bad real time performance.
IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat. It is a live connection to other EMC users. The EMC IRC channel is #emc on freenode.
The simplest way to get on the IRC is to use the embedded java client on this page http://www.linuxcnc.org/content/view/4/8/lang,en/.
Some IRC etiquette:
The most common way to share files on the IRC is to upload the file to one of the following or a similar service and paste the link:
http://pastebin.ca = for text
http://imagebin.ca = for pictures
http://filebin.ca = for files and pdfs
An Internet Mailing List is a way to put questions out for everyone on that list to see and answer at their convenience. You get better exposure to your questions on a mailing list than on the IRC but answers take longer. In a nutshell you e-mail a message to the list and either get daily digests or individual replies back depending on how you set up your account.
Information about the EMC Users Mailing List at:
A Wiki site is a user maintained web site that anyone can add to or edit.
The user maintained EMC Wiki site contains a wealth of information and tips at:
Download the Live CD from:
and follow the Download link.
If the file is too large to download in one session because of a bad or slow Internet connection use wget to allow resuming downloads.
Open a terminal window. In Ubuntu it is Applications/Accessories/Terminal. Note that actual file names may change so you might have to go to http://www.linuxcnc.org/ and follow the Download link to get the actual file name. In most browsers you can right click on the link and select Copy Link Location or similar then paste the link into the terminal window with a right mouse click and select Paste.
To get the Ubuntu 8.04 Hardy Heron version copy this in the terminal window and press enter:
wget -r http://www.linuxcnc.org/hardy/ubuntu-8.04-desktop-emc2-aj07-i386.iso
To get the Ubuntu 6.06 Dapper Drake version:
wget -r http://www.linuxcnc.org/iso/emc2.2.2-1-ubuntu6.06-desktop-i386.iso
To continue a download that has been stopped add the -c option to wget:
wget -r -c http://www.linuxcnc.org/hardy/ubuntu-8.04-desktop-emc2-aj07-i386.iso
To stop a download use Ctrl-C or close the terminal window.
After the download is complete you will find a new directory called www.linuxcnc.org or something similar. In the subdirectory under the above directory you will find the ISO CD image file. Next is burning the CD.
The wget program is also available for Windows from
Follow the instructions on the web page for downloading and installing the windows version of the wget program.
To run wget open a command prompt window.
In most Windows it is Programs/Accessories/Command Prompt
First you have to change to the directory where wget is installed in.
Typically it is in C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin so in the Command Prompt window type:
cd C:\Program Files\GnuWin32\bin
and the prompt should change to C:\Program Files\GnuWin32>
Type the wget command into the window and press enter as above.
EMC2 is distributed as CD image files, called ISOs. To install EMC2, you first need to burn the ISO file onto a CD. You need a working CD/DVD burner and an 80 minute (700 Mb) CD for this. If the CD writing fails, try writing at a slower burn speed.
Before burning a CD, it is highly recommended that you verify the md5 sum (hash) of the .iso file.
Open a terminal window. In Ubuntu it is Applications/Accessories/Terminal.
Change to the directory where the ISO was downloaded to.
The run the md5sum command with the file name you saved.
The md5sum should print out a single line after calculating the hash. On slower computers this might take a minute or two.
Now compare it to the md5sum on the EMC2 download page.
Burning the ISO to a CD
Before burning a CD, it is highly recommended that you verify the md5 sum (hash) of the .iso file.
Windows does not come with a md5sum program. You will have to download and install one to check the md5sum. More information can be found at:
Burning the ISO to a CD
With the Live CD in the CD/DVD drive shut down the computer then turn the computer back on. This will boot the computer from the Live CD. Once the computer has booted up you can try out EMC2 without installing it. You can not create custom configurations or modify most system settings like screen resolution unless you install EMC2.
To try out EMC2 from the Applications/CNC menu pick EMC2. Then select a sim configuration to try out.
To see if your computer is suitable for software step pulse generation run the Latency Test as outlined in Section ([.])
If you like what you see, just click the Install icon on the desktop, answer a few questions (your name, timezone, password) and the install completes in a few minutes. Make sure you write down the name you used and the password. Once the install process is complete and you go on line the update manager will pop up and allow you to upgrade to the latest stable version of EMC2.
The AXIS interface is one of the interfaces to choose from. It can be configured to add a Virtual Control Panel to customize the interface to suit your needs. AXIS is the default user interface and is actively being developed.
With the normal install the Update Manager will notify you of updates to EMC2 when you go on line and allow you to easily upgrade with no Linux knowledge needed. If you want to upgrade to 8.04 from 6.06 a clean install from the Live-CD is needed. It is OK to upgrade EMC when asked to.
Warning: Do not upgrade Ubuntu to a new version (like 8.04 to 8.10) as it will prevent EMC from running.
To update a computer that does not have an internet connection you can download the ".deb" file and transfer it using a USB drive or any other method. Ubuntu 8.04 Hardy packages are located here.
.deb files can be installed or upgraded from the commandline:
$ sudo dpkg -i filename.deb
Depending on your system, double-clicking (or single click if your system is set up that way) the file in your browser may also install or upgrade the package.
In rare cases you might have to reset the BIOS to default settings if during the Live CD install it can not recognize the hard drive during the boot up.
This section assumes you have done a standard install from the Live CD. After installation it is recommended that you connect the computer to the Internet and wait for the update manager to pop up and get the latest updates for EMC and Ubuntu before continuing. For more complex installations see the Integrators Manual.
The Latency Test determines how late your computer processor is in responding to a request. Some hardware can interrupt the processing which could cause missed steps when running a CNC machine. This is the first thing you need to do. Follow the instructions in section ([.]) to run the latency test.
If you have a Sherline several predefined configurations are provided. This is on the main menu CNC/EMC then pick the Sherline configuration that matches yours and save a copy.
If you have a Xylotex you can skip the following sections and go straight to the Stepper Config Wizard in Section ([.]). EMC has provided quick setup for the Xylotex machines.
Gather the information about each axis of your machine.
Drive timing is in nano seconds. If your unsure about the timing many popular drives are included in the stepper configuration wizard. Note some newer Gecko drives have different timing than the original one. A list is also on the user maintained EMC wiki site of more drives at http://wiki.linuxcnc.org.
|Axis||Drive Type||Step Time ns||Step Space ns||Direction Hold ns||Direction Setup ns|
Gather the information about the connections from your machine to the PC parallel port.
|Output Pin||Typical Function||If Different||Input Pin||Typical Function||If Different|
|1||E-Stop Out||10||Both Limit & Home X|
|2||X Step||11||Both Limit & Home Y|
|3||X Direction||12||Both Limit & Home Z|
|4||Y Step||13||Both Limit & Home A|
|5||Y Direction||15||Probe In|
Note any pins not used should be set to Unused in the drop down box. These can always be changed later by running Stepconf again.
Gather information on steps and gearing. The result of this is steps per user unit which is used for SCALE in the .ini file.
|Axis||Steps/Revolution||Micro steps||Motor Teeth||Leadscrew Teeth||Leadscrew Pitch|
Steps per revolution is how many steps it takes to turn the stepper one revolution.
Micro steps is how many steps the drive needs to move the stepper one step.
Motor & Leadscrew Teeth is if you have some reduction between the motor and the leadscrew. If not set these to 1.
Leadscrew pitch is how many turns it takes to move your table one user unit. If your setting up in inches then it is turns per inch. If your setting up in millimeters then how many turns per millimeter.
Run the Stepconf Wizard in chapter ([.])
To change something in the basic configuration created by Stepconf Wizard run the wizard again. Select Modify a configuration... Then pick the configuration file .stepconf you wish to modify in the emc2/configs folder. The file headers tell you if the file can be manually edited or not.
EMC2 is capable of controlling a wide range of machinery using many different hardware interfaces. Stepconf is a program which generates EMC configuration files for a specific class of CNC machine: those connected to the PC using a standard parallel port and controlled with step & direction signals. Stepconf is installed when you install EMC2 and is in the CNC menu.
Stepconf places a file in the emc2/config directory to store the choices for each configuration you create. When you change something you need to pick the file that matches your configuration name. The file extension is .stepconf.
While the test is running, you should "abuse" the computer. Move windows around on the screen. Surf the web. Copy some large files around on the disk. Play some music. Run an OpenGL program such as glxgears. The idea is to put the PC through its paces while the latency test checks to see what the worst case numbers are. Do not run EMC2 while the latency test is running. Run the test at least a few minutes or longer.
Latency is how long it takes the PC to stop what it is doing and respond to an external request. In our case, the request is the periodic "heartbeat" that serves as a timing reference for the step pulses. The lower the latency, the faster you can run the heartbeat, and the faster and smoother the step pulses will be.
Latency is far more important than CPU speed. The CPU isn't the only factor in determining latency. Motherboards, video cards, USB ports, SMI issues, and a number of other things can hurt the latency.
The important numbers are the "max jitter". In the example above 7085 nanoseconds is the highest jitter. Record this number, and enter it in the Base Period Maximum Jitter box.
If your Max Jitter number is less than about 15-20 microseconds (15000-20000 nanoseconds), the computer should give very nice results with software stepping. If the max latency is more like 30-50 microseconds, you can still get good results, but your maximum step rate might be a little disappointing, especially if you use microstepping or have very fine pitch leadscrews. If the numbers are 100uS or more (100,000 nanoseconds), then the PC is not a good candidate for software stepping. Numbers over 1 millisecond (1,000,000 nanoseconds) mean the PC is not a good candidate for EMC, regardless of whether you use software stepping or not.
For each pin, choose the signal which matches your parallel port pin out. Turn on the "invert" check box if the signal is inverted (0V for true/active, 5V for false/inactive).
Charge Pump If your driver board requires a charge pump signal simply select Charge Pump from the drop down list for the output pin you wish to connect to your charge pump input. The charge pump output is connected to the base thread by Stepconf. The charge pump output will be about 1/2 of the maximum step rate shown on the Basic Machine Configuration page.
With Stepconf it is easy to try different values for acceleration and velocity.
Begin with a low Acceleration (e.g., 2 in/s^2 or 50mm/s^2) and the velocity you hope to attain. Using the buttons provided, jog the axis to near the center of travel. Take care because with a low acceleration value, it can take a surprising distance for the axis to decelerate to a stop.
After gauging the amount of travel available, enter a safe distance in Test Area, keeping in mind that after a stall the motor may next start to move in an unexpected direction. Then click Run. The machine will begin to move back and forth along this axis. In this test, it is important that the combination of Acceleration and Test Area allow the machine to reach the selected Velocity and "cruise" for at least a short distance--the more distance, the better this test is. The formula d=.5*v*v/a gives the minimum distance required reach the specified velocity with the given acceleration. If it is convenient and safe to do so, push the table against the direction of motion to simulate cutting forces. If the machine stalls, reduce the speed and start the test again.
If the machine did not obviously stall, click the "Run" button off. The axis now returns to the position where it started. If the position is incorrect, then the axis stalled or lost steps during the test. Reduce Velocity and start the test again.
If the machine doesn't move, stalls, or loses steps no matter how low you turn Velocity, verify the following:
Once you have found a speed at which the axis does not stall or lose steps during this testing procedure, reduce it by 10% and use that as the axis Maximum Velocity.
With the Maximum Velocity you found in the previous step, enter the acceleration value to test. procedure as above, adjusting the Acceleration value up or down as necessary. In this test, it is important that the combination of Acceleration and Test Area allow the machine to reach the selected Velocity. Once you have found a value at which the axis does not stall or lose steps during this testing procedure, reduce it by 10% and use that as the axis Maximum Acceleration.
This page only appear when "Spindle PWM" is chosen in the Parallel Port Pinout page for one of the outputs.
If "Spindle PWM" appears on the pinout, the following information should be entered:
When the appropriate signals from a spindle encoder are connected to the parallel port, EMC supports lathe threading. These signals are:
If "Spindle Phase A" and "Spindle Index" appear on the pinout, the following information should be entered:
Enter the following values in the Spindle Configuration page:
|Speed 1:||0||PWM 1:||0|
|Speed 2:||1000||PWM 1:||1|
Finish the remaining steps of the configuration process, then launch EMC with your configuration. Turn the machine on and select the MDI tab. Start the spindle turning by entering: M3 S100. Change the spindle speed by entering a different S-number: S800. Valid numbers range from 1 to 1000.
For two different S-numbers, measure the actual spindle speed in RPM. Record the S-numbers and actual spindle speeds. Run Stepconf again. For "Speed" enter the measured speed, and for "PWM" enter the S-number divided by 1000.
Because most spindle drivers are somewhat nonlinear in their response curves, it is best to:
For instance, if your spindle will go from 0RPM to 8000RPM, but you generally use speeds from 400RPM to 4000RPM, then find the PWM values that give 1600RPM and 2800RPM.
Click “Apply” to write the configuration files. Later, you can re-run this program and tweak the settings you entered before.
For each axis, there is a limited range of travel. The physical end of travel is called the hard stop.
Before the hard stop there is a limit switch. If the limit switch is encountered during normal operation, EMC shuts down the motor amplifier. The distance between the hard stop and limit switch must be long enough to allow an unpowered motor to coast to a stop.
Before the limit switch there is a soft limit. This is a limit enforced in software after homing. If a MDI command, or g code program would pass the soft limit, it is not executed. If a jog would pass the soft limit, it is terminated at the soft limit.
The home switch can be placed anywhere within the travel (between hard stops). As long as external hardware does not deactivate the motor amplifiers with the limit switch is reached, one of the limit switches can be used as a home switch.
The zero position is the location on the axis that is 0 in the machine coordinate system. Usually the zero position will be within the soft limits. On lathes, constant surface speed mode requires that machine X=0 correspond to the center of spindle rotation when no tool offset is in effect.
The home position is the location within travel that the axis will be moved to at the end of the homing sequence. This value must be within the soft limits. In particular, the home position should never be exactly equal to a soft limit.
A machine can be operated without limit switches. In this case, only the soft limits stop the machine from reaching the hard stop. Soft limits only operate after the machine has been homed.
A machine can be operated without home switches. If the machine has limit switches, but no home switches, it is best to use a limit switch as the home switch (e.g., choose Minimum Limit + Home X in the pinout). If the machine has no switches at all, or the limit switches cannot be used as home switches for another reason, then the machine must be homed "by eye" or by using match marks. Homing by eye is not as repeatable as homing to switches, but it still allows the soft limits to be useful.
The ideal wiring for external switches would be one input per switch. However, the PC parallel port only offers a total of 5 inputs, while there are as many as 9 switches on a 3-axis machine. Instead, multiple switches are wired together in various ways so that a smaller number of inputs are required.
The figures below show the general idea of wiring multiple switches to a single input pin. In each case, when one switch is actuated, the value seen on INPUT goes from logic HIGH to LOW. However, EMC expects a TRUE value when a switch is closed, so the corresponding "Invert" box must be checked on the pinout configuration page.
The following combinations of switches are permitted in Stepconf:
The last two combinations are also appropriate when a "home to limit" is used.
After installation, EMC2 starts just like any other piece of Linux software: run it from the terminal by issuing the command emc, or select it in the Applications > CNC menu.
By default, the Configuration Selector dialog is shown when you first run EMC. Your own personalized configurations are shown at the top of the list, followed by sample configurations. Since each sample configuration is for a different type of hardware interface, some will not run without the hardware installed. The configurations listed under the category "sim" run entirely without attached hardware.
Click any of the listed configurations to display specific information about it. Double-click a configuration or click OK to start the configuration. Select "Create Desktop Shortcut" and then click OK to add an icon on the Ubuntu desktop to directly launch this configuration without showing the Configuration Selector screen.
If you select a configuration from the Sample Configurations section, you will be asked to copy the configuration to a location in your home directory. It is safe to say "yes" to this prompt. If you say "no", EMC may start but will behave strangely--for instance, offsets entered with Touch Off will be cleared unexpectedly. This is because the files are read only if you don't save a copy to your home directory.
After finding the sample configuration that uses the same interface hardware as your machine, and saving a copy to your home directory you can customize it according to the details of your machine. Refer to the Integrators Manual for topics on configuration.
These are some basic Linux commands and techniques for new to Linux users. More complete information can be found on the web or by using the man pages.
When you install EMC2 with the Ubuntu LiveCD the default is to have to log in each time you turn the computer on. To enable automatic login go to System/Administration/Login Window. If it is a fresh install the Login Window might take a second or three to pop up. You will have to have your password that you used for the install to gain access to the Login Window Preferences window. In the Security tab check off Enable Automatic Login and pick a user name from the list (that would be you).
Man pages are automatically generated manual pages in most cases. Man pages are usually available for most programs and commands in Linux.
To view a man page open up a terminal window by going to Applications, Accessories, Terminal. For example if you wanted to find out something about the find command in the terminal window type:
Use the Page Up and Page Down keys to view the man page and the Q key to quit viewing.
Sometimes when troubleshooting you need to get a list of modules that are loaded. In a terminal window type:
If you want to send the output from lsmod to a text file in a terminal window type:
lsmod > mymod.txt
The resulting text file will be located in the home directory if you did not change directories when you opened up the terminal window and it will be named mymod.txt or what ever you named it.
When you open the file browser and you see the Owner of the file is root you must do extra steps to edit that file. Editing some root files can have bad results. Be careful when editing root files. You can open and view most root files normally but they will open in “read only” mode.
Open up Applications, Accessories, Terminal.
In the terminal window type
Open the file with File, Open then edit
In Ubuntu you can become root by typing in "sudo -i" in a terminal window then typing in your password. You can really foul up things if you don't know what your doing as root.
To find out the path to the present working directory in the terminal window type:
To move up one level in the terminal window type:
To move up two levels in the terminal window type:
To move down to the emc2/configs subdirectory in the terminal window type:
To view a list of all the files and subdirectories in the terminal window type:
The find command can be a bit confusing to a new Linux user. The basic syntax is:
find starting-directory parameters actions
For example to find all the .ini files in your emc2 directory you first need to use the pwd command to find out the directory. Open a new terminal window and type:
might return the following result
With this information put the command together like this:
find /home/joe/emc2 -name *.ini -print
The -name is the name of the file your looking for and the -print tells it to print out the result to the terminal window. The *.ini tells find to return all files that have the .ini extension.
To find all the files in the directory named and all the subdirectories under that add the -L option to the find command like this:
find -L /home/joe/emc2 -name *.ini -print
grep -i -r 'text to search for' *
To find all the files that contain the 'text to search for' in the current directory and all the subdirectories below the current while ignoring the case. The -i is for ignore case and the -r is for recursive (include all subdirectories in the search). The * is a wild card for search all files.
To view the bootup messages use "dmesg" from the command window. To save the bootup messages to a file use the redirection operator like this:
dmesg > bootmsg.txt
The contents of this file can be copied and pasted on line to share with people trying to help you diagnose your problem.
To clear the message buffer type this:
sudo dmesg -c
This can be useful to do just before you launch EMC to only show the infomation related to the start up of EMC.
If you want to add a terminal launcher to the panel bar on top of the screen you typically can right click on the panel at the top of the screen and select "Add to Panel". Select Custom Application Launcher and Add. Give it a name and put gnome-terminal in the command box.
To find out what hardware is connected to your motherboard in a terminal window type:
During installation Ubuntu attempts to detect the monitor settings. If this fails you are left with a generic monitor with a maximum resolution of 800x600.
Instructions for fixing this are located here:
Copyright (c) 2000 LinuxCNC.org
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and one Back-Cover Text: "This EMC Handbook is the product of several authors writing for linuxCNC.org. As you find it to be of value in your work, we invite you to contribute to its revision and growth." A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". If you do not find the license you may order a copy from Free Software Foundation, Inc. 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307
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A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five). C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher. D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. I. Preserve the section entitled "History", and its title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. K. In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. M. Delete any section entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. N. Do not retitle any existing section as "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections entitled "Endorsements."
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the compilation. Such a compilation is called an "aggregate", and this License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate. Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License provided that you also include the original English version of this License. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original English version of this License, the original English version will prevail.
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http:///www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page:
Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".
If you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invariant Sections" instead of saying which ones are invariant. If you have no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being LIST"; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.
If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.